Constitution & Bylaws
Article I: Name
The name of this organization shall be the International Academy of Cytology.
The International Academy of Cytology is founded as an international, scientific, nonprofit organization of cytologists and professional persons concerned with research in clinical cytology.
Article II: Objects
The objects of the International Academy of Cytology shall be:
1. To encourage cooperation among those persons who are actively engaged in the practice of clinical cytology;
2. To foster and facilitate the international exchange of knowledge and information on specialized problems of clinical cytology;
3. To standardize terminology;
4. To stimulate the development of all phases of clinical cytology;
5. To encourage research in clinical cytology.
Article III: Foundation
The International Academy of Cytology has been established by a Founders’ Committee, the function of which shall cease at the time of the formation and assumption of office of the First Executive Council.
The Members of the Founders’ Committee were (July 12, 1957):
1. George N. Papanicolaou, U.S.A., Honorary Chairman
2. Hans Klaus Zinser, Germany, Chairman
3. Ruth M. Graham, U.S.A., Secretary
4. A. F. Anderson, United Kingdom
5. J. Ernest Ayre, U.S.A.
6. Jean Berger, Switzerland
7. Jean A. de Brux, France
8. Jorge Campos R. de. C., Peru
9. W. Kenneth Cuyler, U.S.A.
10. Clarice do Amaral Ferreira, Brazil
11. Claude Gompel, Belgium
12. Alberto Guzman, Chile
13. Olle Kjellgren, Sweden
14. Julieta C. de Laguna, Mexico
15. Olaf Messelt, Norway
16. Junji Mizuno, Japan
17. Luis Montalvo-Ruiz, Spain
18. Hannah Peters, India
19. J. Paul Pundel, Luxembourg
20. Abraham E. Rakoff, U.S.A.
21. James W. Reagan, U.S.A.
22. Edmund Schüller, Austria
23. Peter Stoll, Germany
24. Lina Tsakiris-Coutifaris, Greece
25. Guillermo Terzano, Argentina
26. Erica Wachtel, United Kingdom
27. George L. Wied, U.S.A.
All members of the Founders’ Committee shall automatically become voting members of the International Academy of Cytology.
First Executive Council
The Officers of the First Executive Council shall be appointed by the Founders’ Committee. The First Executive Council shall consist of seven (7) members, including the President, the Secretary, the Treasurer and the Editor. The term of office of the First Executive Council shall not count toward reelection, as treated in Article VI, Sections 3 and 5, of the Constitution.
Second Executive Council
The Second Executive Council, consisting of seven (7) members, including the President, the President-Elect, the Secretary, the Treasurer and the Editor, shall be elected by mail vote at least sixty (60) days prior to the end of the term of office of the First Executive Council. The term of office of the Second Executive Council shall be two (2) years, or until the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology, which may not be held later than thirty (30) months after the Second Executive Council takes office.
Third and Subsequent Executive Councils
The Third and all subsequent Executive Councils shall consist of thirteen (13) members who shall be elected by mail vote. The term of office of the Third and all subsequent Executive Councils shall be three (3) years or until the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology, which may not be held later than forty-eight (48) months after the current Executive Council took office. The election shall be held not earlier than one hundred twenty (120) days but not later than sixty (60) days prior to the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology or prior to the end of the term of office of the current Executive Council.
Article IV: Membership
Types of Members
The membership of the International Academy of Cytology shall be composed of the following classes of members:
3. Honorary Fellow
4. Member of Affiliated Society
5. Cytotechnologist Member
6. Cytotechnologist Fellow
7. Professional Nonmedical Member
The voting members of the International Academy shall be the Fellows, the Members and the Cytotechnologist Fellows.
Article V: Qualifications for Membership
Admission to all classes of membership in the Academy, except that of the members of the Founders’ Committee, shall be by approval of the Executive Council. The Executive Council shall invite only those members to become Fellows who fulfill all qualifications for Fellowship, as stipulated in Section 2 of this Article.
Fellowship in the Academy may be offered to those doctors of medicine who have been Members in good standing of the Academy for at least two years and have passed successfully the examination of the International Board of Cytopathology.
Fellows may use the abbreviation F.I.A.C. following their names.
Membership in the Academy may be offered to candidates fulfilling the following qualifications:
1. Candidate must provide the Academy with two (2) letters from physicians who can attest to his or her good moral character and high professional standards.
2. Candidate must be a graduate of a Medical School listed in the WHO Directory of Medical Schools or the World Directory of Medical Schools.
3. Candidate must be licensed to practice medicine in the country of residence.
4A. Candidate should have completed training in anatomic pathology and at least one year’s full-time training and experience in cytopathology in an institution acceptable to the International Academy of Cytology, or:
4B. Candidate should have completed training in a medical specialty other than anatomic pathology and have had 24 months’ full-time training and experience in all aspects of cytopathology in an institution acceptable to the International Academy of Cytology.
4C. In the absence of a structured cytology teaching program in his particular country, candidate may submit evidence of practice and/or experience in cytopathology for at least five (5) years to quality for membership.
Members may be considered for Fellowship upon successfully passing the examination of the International Board of Cytopathology of the International Academy of Cytology.
Members may use the abbreviation M.I.A.C. (for Member of the International Academy of Cytology) following their names.
Distinguished scientists of international reputation who have shown great interest in the development of cytology may be invited by the Executive Council for Honorary Fellowship.
Honorary Fellows may use the abbreviation F.I.A.C.(hon) following their names.
Members of Affiliated Societies
Members of Affiliated Societies are non–dues paying, may request pertinent information, may participate in the Literature Service of the Academy and shall be invited to participate in the international meetings of the International Academy of Cytology.
A national society of cytology may become affiliated with the International Academy of Cytology by a letter of request signed by the responsible officer of said national society. The Executive Council of the Academy by majority vote decides on acceptance of this request. Upon acceptance, the national society of cytology may identify itself as "affiliated with the International Academy of Cytology," and its members become "Members of Affiliated Societies." They are nonvoting and may not use an abbreviation concerning Academy membership after their names.
Cytotechnologist Members and Cytotechnologist Fellows
Section 11 (CMIAC and CFIAC)
Cytotechnologists who have successfully passed the Registry Examination of the International Academy of Cytology, or the equivalent, may apply for admission to the International Academy of Cytology as a Cytotechnologist Member. The Executive Council by majority vote decides on acceptance of this request. Cytotechnologist Members may be elevated to Cytotechnologist Fellowship after three (3) years of Cytotechnologist Membership if they fulfill at least three (3) of the following five (5) qualifications for Cytotechnologist Fellowship.
1. Candidate must have been engaged in the practice of cytotechnology on a full-time basis for at least ten (10) years prior to elevation to Cytotechnologist Fellowship;
2. Candidate must have been engaged in the teaching of cytotechnology for at least seven (7) years;
3. Candidate must be author or coauthor of at least three (3) publications on cytology. Papers accepted for publication may be considered published;
4. Candidate must be associated with a medical school, a teaching hospital or a comparable research institution at the time of nomination and admission to Cytotechnologist Fellowship;
5. Candidate must be either Chief Cytotechnologist or Educational Supervisor or have performed meritorious service on committees or subcommittees of the Academy.
Cytotechnologist Members of the International Academy of Cytology shall maintain their valid C.T.(I.A.C.) certification. Cytotechnologist Members of the International Academy of Cytology may use the abbreviation C.M.I.A.C. following their names. Cytotechnologist Fellows of the International Academy of Cytology may use the abbreviation C.F.I.A.C. following their names.
Cytotechnologist Members, Cytotechnologist Fellows and Professional Nonmedical Members may serve on committees of the International Academy of Cytology.
Professional Nonmedical Members
Section 14 (PMIAC)
Scientists who hold a degree other than medical may be nominated for membership as Professional Nonmedical Members of the International Academy of Cytology if they demonstrate special interest in cytology.
Professional Members of the International Academy of Cytology may use the abbreviation P.M.I.A.C. following their names.
Emeritus Fellows and Members
Fellows and Members of the International Academy of Cytology may become emeriti at the time of their retirement from the active practice of cytology. Emeritus members may use the letters "(em)" following the abbreviation of the membership category—i.e., F.I.A.C.(em), M.I.A.C.(em), P.M.I.A.C.(em), C.F.I.A.C.(em) and C.M.I.A.C.(em). Emeritus members are exempted from the payment of dues.
Article VI: Officers - Terms of Office
The first officers of the Academy shall be nominated and elected by the Founders’ Committee, as outlined in Article III, Section 2. There shall be no President-Elect in the First Executive Council.
In the Second and all subsequent Executive Councils, the officers shall be a President, a President-Elect, a Secretary, a Treasurer and an Editor, all of whom must be Fellows in good standing.
The President of the Third and all subsequent Executive Councils shall have a three (3) year term of office, or until the next meeting of the Academy, which may not be held later than forty-eight (48) months after the current Executive Council takes office. He may not be reelected for a consecutive term.
The President-Elect shall be elected during the term of office prior to his assumption of the office of president.
The Vice-Presidents, the Secretary, the Treasurer and the Editor shall be elected for a term of three (3) years, or until the meeting of the Academy, which may be held not later than forty-eight (48) months after the current Executive Council takes office. These officers are eligible for reelection.
Officers may hold more than one office on the Executive Council if they are nominated for and are elected by separate elections to these offices.
Article VII: Governing Body
The Governing Body of the International Academy of Cytology shall be the Executive Council.
The Executive Council shall be the central governing organization of the Academy and shall consist of thirteen (13) voting members in good standing.
The Executive Council shall include the President, the President-Elect, the Vice-Presidents, the Past President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Editor and as many elected members as are necessary to complete the Executive Council. There shall not be a President-Elect in the First Executive Council.
The Past President shall automatically become a member of the Executive Council for the term of office following his presidency.
The President-Elect, during the term of office preceding his assumption of office as President, shall be a member of the Executive Council.
The members of the Third and all subsequent Executive Councils shall be elected not earlier than one hundred twenty (120) days but not later than sixty (60) days prior to the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology. If no meeting can be held after three (3) years of office, the Executive Council may remain in office an additional twelve (12) months. If, by this time, no meeting can be arranged, a new Executive Council shall be elected by a mail vote not later than forty-eight (48) months after taking office.
Vacancies in the Executive Council shall be filled by a called vote by mail. The President, or, if the President is unable to do so, the Executive Council by majority vote, may appoint an acting officer for any vacant Executive Council position until the vote is completed. A vacant position on the Executive Council shall be filled by vote by mail not later than ninety (90) days following that date when a vacancy, for any reason, occurred.
Article VIII: Committees
There shall be four standing business committees in the Academy:
1. The Nomination Committee
2. The Membership Committee
3. The Committee on Registration and Renewal
4. The Committee on Continuing Education and Quality Assurance
The chairman and members of the standing business committees shall be appointed by the President.
Scientific subcommittees or additional business committees may be established by the Executive Council for specific purposes to meet current needs. The President appoints the chairmen and members of all committees. These committees may be dissolved by the President.
Article IX: Maintenance of Membership and Discipline
The Executive Council may, on its own motion or on a written statement signed by a complainant, take cognizance of any breach of the rules and regulations of the Academy, or of any unprofessional conduct on the part of a fellow or member, or of any behavior contrary to the purpose of the Academy, or of any conduct that threatens the order, functions, peace, reputation and dignity of the Academy.
No hearing before the Executive Council shall be held unless the accused is served notice of the hearing with a written statement of the changes against him, at least thirty (30) days prior to the hearing, this notice and statement to be sent by registered mail to the last address given by the accused. The hearing may be held by mail if the case makes it mandatory that the Executive Council act as soon as possible.
If, after hearing the evidence presented, the Executive Council, by majority vote, finds the Fellow or Member guilty as charged, the Executive Council may reprimand him, suspend him from membership, request his resignation or expel him.
If a Fellow or Member shall have been expelled or suspended from membership, the Academy may publish notice of such expulsion or suspension in the periodical of the Academy and/or in the medical journals.
Any member of the Executive Council of the International Academy of Cytology who refuses to carry out his duties or who is remiss in same shall be given a warning by the President, and if this warning is not heeded within one month from the date of such warning, the matter shall be presented to the Executive Council, which may suspend such an officer or remove him, by majority vote of the Executive Council, for not carrying out his duties as specified in the Constitution and Bylaws of the Academy.
Any Fellow or Member of the International Academy can be immediately and without the right of appeal expelled if the national society of cytology or the national medical association or one of the two major societies of gynecologists or one of the two major societies of pathologists would request in an official statement issued by their respective executive boards or presidents that this Fellow or Member by expelled from the Academy. The Executive Council of the Academy by majority vote may expel this Fellow or Member and may publish this decision in medical journals.
Article X: Dissolution of the Academy
The Executive Council may, on its own motion, or upon receipt of a petition signed by at least thirty-five percent (35%) of the voting members, call a vote, whether by mail or in person, among the voting members as to whether the Academy should be dissolved.
An affirmative vote of at least eighty percent (80%) of all voting members is necessary to dissolve the organization.
Article XI: Amendment of the Constitution
This Constitution may be amended by seventy-five percent (75%) of the votes of the members present and voting, whether in person or by proxy, providing that the amendment shall be presented during the Open Session and voted upon during the Final Session of the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology or by mail vote.
Article 1: Function of the Academy
The function of the International Academy of Cytology shall be to promote the objects of the organization by way of meetings and by way of a periodical to all members of the Academy.
In order to promote a uniformly high quality of cytodiagnostic procedures throughout the world, the Academy may set standards for certification in those areas where such standards have not been set by national bodies.
The International Academy of Cytology shall meet, not later than every forty-eight (48) months, on that date and at that place determined by the Executive Council. This meeting may be held prior to, or shortly after, and at the same place as a major international scientific congress.
Affiliated Societies may hold national meetings, or several Affiliated Societies in the same general region may hold regional meetings, as often as the need arises. These meetings shall harmonize and in no way conflict with the Constitution and Bylaws of the International Academy of Cytology and the International Congress sponsored by the Academy.
The official languages of the International Academy of Cytology are, in alphabetical order, English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish.
The Secretary of the International Academy of Cytology shall send notice of the meeting, by mail, at least one hundred fifty (150) days in advance thereof, addressed to the last given address of each and every member. The notice shall state the place and the date of the proposed meeting.
Order of Business
The following shall be the order of business for the opening and final sessions of the meetings:
1. Opening Sessions
(A) Call to Order by the President.
(B) Roll Call.
(C) Consideration of minutes of last meeting.
(D) Report of Committee on Nominations.
(E) Report of Membership Committee.
(F) Report of Officers.
(G) Report of any temporary committees.
(H) Introduction to Resolutions.
(I) Submission of invitation for next meeting.
(J) Miscellaneous business.
2. Final Sessions
(A) Roll Call.
(B) Consideration of unfinished business of the preceding session.
(C) New business.
(D) Installation of Officers for Ensuring Term.
(E) Announcement of Committee Appointments by newly installed President.
The order of business may be modified by a majority vote of those members present and voting at that session.
Papers presented at the Scientific Session shall be original papers that have not been presented or published previously. Material that has already been published or presented elsewhere may be considered in panel discussions.
ACTA CYTOLOGICA shall be the Official Periodical of the Academy.
ACTA CYTOLOGICA shall be issued in English.
Publication of Membership Rolls
The complete list of members of the Academy shall be made known from time to time. The names of the members of the established committees and subcommittees shall be listed.
Article II: Duties of Officers
The President shall preside over all meetings of the International Academy of Cytology and the Executive Council; shall appoint all business committees and scientific subcommittees and the chairmen thereof; shall be an ex-officio member of all business committees of the Academy; shall sign all letters and documents requiring his signature; shall deliver the Presidential Address at the opening session of the International meeting of the Academy; and shall perform such other duties pertaining to his office.
If the President cannot preside at the above- mentioned meetings, the President-Elect, if any, shall preside. If there is no President-Elect or if the President-Elect is unable to preside, the Vice-Presidents (in sequence of their seniority) may preside.
The President-Elect shall familiarize himself with the duties of his intended office in the term preceding his presidency by association with the President and by membership in the Executive Council.
The two Vice-Presidents shall be identified as First and Second Vice-President, depending on their seniority as members of the Executive Council. The Vice-Presidents, in sequence of seniority, shall preside at the meetings of the Academy if neither President nor President-Elect is available. The Vice-Presidents, in sequence of seniority, will sign all letters and documents requiring the signature of the President if the President is not available, and they shall perform such other duties pertaining to their offices as assigned to them by the President or the Executive Council.
The Secretary shall have the authority to act as an agent of the Academy as the Executive Council may so direct; shall have charge of the routine business affairs of the Academy; shall be custodian of the books, documents and papers of the Academy, except those belonging to the Treasury (if the Secretary is not the Treasurer also) or to the editorial office; shall provide for keeping the minutes and proceedings of the meetings of the Academy; shall sign such correspondence and such documents as may be required in the discharge of his duties; shall attest and affix the seal of the Academy to all documents that require it and certify to all acts requiring certification; shall send out notices for all meetings; shall be ex officio member of all business committees of the Academy; and shall perform such other duties as usually pertain to his office.
At the expense of the Academy, he may be bonded in such as amount as the Executive Council shall prescribe.
The Treasurer shall send out bills for the annual dues at the first of each year to all individual members; shall collect all dues from individual members; shall be responsible for all correspondence incident to the matter of bills and collection of dues; and shall render an account of monies thus collected, setting forth amounts received and amounts outstanding and all details pertinent to the financial status of the Academy.
The Treasurer shall receive all funds due the International Academy of Cytology and, with the approval of the Executive Council, shall deposit such funds in banks approved by the Council and keep complete books of amounts concerning the receipts and expenditures of the Academy; shall pay money out of the Treasury only upon vouchers signed by the President and countersigned by the Secretary; or if for any reason the signatures of the President and/or the Secretary are not obtainable, the Treasurer shall pay money out of the Treasury in accordance with the majority opinion of the Executive Council; he shall render audited financial statements of his accounts to the Executive Council, and the Executive Council shall employ, at the expense of the Academy, a certified public accountant for this purpose; the Treasurer shall perform such other duties as are assigned to him by the Executive Council and such other duties as usually pertain to his office.
If the Treasury contains at any time more than $500.00 or equivalent thereof, the Treasurer may be bonded at the expense of the Academy in such an amount as the Executive Council shall prescribe. In case of inability of the Treasurer, the President shall appoint immediately an Acting Treasurer who may be bonded and perform the duties of the Treasurer until the Treasurer may be able to resume his duties or until the voting members have elected another Treasurer. The Treasurer and Secretary may be one person if so elected by the voting members or if the President appoints the Secretary Acting Treasurer in case of inability of the Treasurer.
The Editor shall be responsible for editing the periodical of the International Academy of Cytology, which shall be sent to all voting members. The Editor will be assisted in his job by a number of invited coeditors and nominated national regional editors, together with an invited editorial advisory board composed of specialists in the various fields of cytology. The Editor shall include in ACTA CYTOLOGICA announcements by the officers of the Academy, and he shall select scientific topics for discussion and shall supervise the publication of all scientific papers approved by the Editorial Board for publication. In addition, he shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Executive Council and such other duties as usually pertain to the Editor’s office.
Article III: Nomination and Election of Officers and General Vote
List of officers nominated by the Nominations Committee should reach the Secretary at least one hundred fifty (150) days prior to the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology or to the end of term of office of the current Executive Council.
Election of Officers by Mail Vote
In votes by mail that concern election of individuals by any office the voting members shall receive lists of the voting members nominated for each office to be filled. The chairman of the Nominations Committee may add to the ballot a list with the preferred candidates as selected by this Committee. The voting members shall be free, however, to make their own selection.
The Executive Council, on its own motion, or on written petition signed by at least thirty-five percent (35%) of the voting membership of the Academy, may introduce a vote by mail among the voting members of the Academy on any given subject. The written request for a vote signed by thirty-five percent (35%) of the voting members shall make it mandatory upon the Executive Council to introduce the vote among the voting members not later than sixty (60) days after receipt of the petition.
Article IV: Dues and Property of the Academy
The annual dues shall be payable in U.S. dollars on January 1 of each year. The membership dues shall be determined by action of the Executive Council. A member shall be deemed delinquent if his dues are not paid ten (10) months after the first of January of that calendar year. Notice of delinquency shall be mailed by the Treasurer to any member whose dues are in arrears for ten (10) months, and if dues are not paid within two (2) months thereafter, such a member shall be automatically suspended from the Academy.
Waiving of Dues
Any member of the International Academy of Cytology may request that his annual dues be waived if monetary transactions are legally impossible.
Property of the International Academy of Cytology, the dues and any donations, gifts, bequests or legacies made to the International Academy of Cytology shall be administered by the Treasurer.
The management and investment of all funds of the International Academy of Cytology, as well as the expenditures for Academy activities, shall be under the direct control of the Executive Council.
The Executive Council shall submit a complete report of all its financial transactions at each meeting of the International Academy of Cytology for ratification by the majority of present and voting members.
Vouchers approved by the Executive Council shall be paid by the Treasurer.
In the case of dissolution of the International Academy of Cytology, the property of the Academy shall be donated to the International Union Against Cancer, or to some medical organization of related purpose or intent, as the Executive Council by majority vote may direct.
Article V: Nominations for Fellowship and Membership
Two Fellows in good standing may submit to the Secretary for nomination to the International Academy of Cytology the name of any individual who they feel is qualified for admission to the International Academy of Cytology.
The candidate shall be screened by the Executive Council. If the majority of the Executive Council approve the candidate, the Secretary of the International Academy of Cytology shall invite the Candidate for membership.
Article VI: Standing Business Committees
The function of the Nomination Committee shall be: to nominate and to distribute among the voting members of the Academy the list of nominations for the Officers and Executive Council members, at least ninety (90) days prior to the election, and to perform all other duties as usually pertain to nomination committees.
The function of the Membership Committee shall be: to assist in selection of new members and take care of all procedures included under their initiation as members, checking qualifications and all other procedures, and to perform other duties as usually pertain to membership committees.
Article VII: Amendments of the Bylaws
These Bylaws may be amended by seventy-five percent (75%) of the voting members present and voting at the meeting of the International Academy of Cytology and/or by seventy-five percent (75%) of the voting members participating and voting in a mail vote provided that the voting members have received copies of the proposed amendment or amendment from the Secretary one month prior to the meeting or prior to the vote by mail.
Article VIII: Rules of Order
Any question of order not provided for by these Bylaws shall be determined by parliamentary usage as expounded in the most recent edition of Robert’s Rules of Order.